Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine Lviv National University named after I. Franko Faculty of Geology icon

Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine Lviv National University named after I. Franko Faculty of Geology




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Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine

Lviv National University named after I.Franko

Faculty of Geology


APPROVED”

Leschuh R.Y., Dean

“ ____” ___________ 2001

Syllabus


Subject: PETROGRAPHY OF CRYSTAL ROCKS WITH FUNDAMENTALS OF CRYSTAL OPTICS.

Specialty: research and exploration of mineral resources

Department: Geology

Form of tuition: Fulltime

Extract from Educational Curriculum


Semester

Hours

Lectures

Practicum

Test

Exam

V

VI

VII

total

90

70

42

202

48

28

28

104

42

42

14

98

2


2


2

2

4



Compiled by: K.I.Sveshnikov, professor


Considered at the Recommended by

Petrography Methodological Council of

Department meeting Department of Geology


Head of the Department Head of the Methodological

___________ V.O.Khmelivsky, assistant professor ___________ Pavlun M.M.

“____” __________2001 “_____” ____________2001.


SYLLABUS

For the course

^ Petrography of Crystal Rocks with Fundamentals of Crystal Optics “


Introduction to Petrography of igneous rocks ( 2 hrs.). Petrography is a science of rocks. History and main stages in the development of the science. Classification of types of rocks as to their genetics (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks). Methods of research of rocks in mountainous and laboratory conditions. Importance of applied petrographic research.


Topics

Main points



І



Theoretical fundamentals of crystal optics

1. ^ Coming of light through crystals. Definition of polarized light, refraction of light, structure of polarizing microscope, preparation of microscope to work.


2. Methods of Study of Minerals with the Help of Microscope. Study of minerals with parallel nichols: Forms of minerals, commissure, determination of angles between systems of commissure, colour, biotite and tourmaline schemes of pleochroism of minerals, differences between ore and non-ore minerals, line of Bekke, effect of dispersion, groups of minerals in accordance with classification of Lodochnikov, shagreen, pseudo- absorption.

Study of minerals with crossed nichols: isotropic and anisotropic minerals, direct and indirect fading, determination of angles of fading, definition of indicatrices, double refraction of light, definition of differences in radiation of beams, determining of double refraction value, notion of stretching of minerals, determination of signs of stretching of minerals. Scale of colours and abnormal colours of interference. Contents of the table of crystalo-optic attributes of minerals.

3.Colloquium



ІІ





Rock-formational minerals of crystal rocks


1. Most widely spread salic minerals of the rocks of normal row – quartz, plagioclases, potassium, feldspar. Characteristics differences and their crystalo-optic features (character of duplication, determination of plagioclase number).

2.Femic minerals of the rocks of normal row

- olivines, pyiroxenes, amphiboles, micas. Characteristic differences and their crystalo-optic features (angles between systems of commissure in pyroxenes and amphiboles, character of pleochroism in micas).

3.Alkali mineralsalkali pyroxenes and amphiboles, nepheline, leucite, analcime, sodalite, hauin, nosean.

4.Secondary mineralssecondary amphiboles, group of epidote – clinozoisite, serpentines, chlorite, carbonate, sericite and sossurite, low temperature compounds of silica, secondary minerals in alkali rocks – cancrinite, ceolite.


5.Accessory minerals – garnet, apatite, zircon, sphen, ortite, tourmaline, fluorite.

6.Colloquium



ІІІ





Magmatic Processes and Classification of Igneous Rocks

1.Magmatic processes– smelting of magmatic fusions, differentiation, eruption, hardening of magmatic fusions. Laws of crystallization of minerals (definition of eutectics, crystallization of solid solutions, congruent and incongruent crystallization, scheme of Bowen).

2.^ Structural and Textural Features of Igneous Rocks.

Main structural features of igneous rocks: according to level of decrystallization (fully crystallized, half crystallized, glassy, crystallites, microlites, spherulites ), according to size of grain (aphanite, small–, medium–, coarse-grained), according to relative distribution of grain (evenly and unevenly grained, porphyre and porphyre like), according to interrelation between minerals.

Textures – homogeneous, taxitic, spherical, fluidic.

3.^ Principles of classification of igneous rocks

classes (plutonic and volcanic), groups (ultra main, main, intermediate, acid rocks ), rows (normal, alkali, subalkali). Rocks melano-, mezo-, and leucocratic, paleotypical and ceinotypical. Research of igneous rocks by petrochemical methods (CYPW system, method of petrochemical calculations of Zavarzitsky).

4.^ Forms of igneous bodies.

Forms of intrusive bodies (batholiths, laccoliths, lopoliths, sills, dykes, term “massif”, single– and multiple phased massifs, apophis, vein series, facies), contacts of massifs and changes associated with contacts (endo-, exo-contact), structure of massifs (zones, spots, layers), concordant and disconcordant massifs. Depth of massifs formation. Forms of volcanic bodies ( flows, covers, plateaux, volcanoes of central types, shield and strata-volcanoes, calderas, volcanic bombs, astroblemes).

5.Main types of igneous rocks.
^

Ultra main group (dunites, оlivinites, harzburgites, lerzolites, werlite, komatiites, picrites, urtites, nepheline, leucites).


Main group (gabro, norites, troktolites, pyroxenes, picrobasalts, basalts, trachybasalts, shoshonites, alkali gabroids, alkali trachybasalts). Intermediate group (diorites, quartz diorites, monzonites and syenites, feldspar and alkali syenites, andesitobasalts, andesites, trachyandesites, latites, trachytes, phonolites), group of acid contents (granodiorites, granites, leucоgranites, quartz syenites, alkali granites, dacites, riolites, panterelites). Vein rocks (lamprophyres, aplites, pegmatites ).

6.colloquium



IV





Associations of igneous rocks of main geostructures, their origin

1.Magmatic associations of oceans and transition zones “ocean-continent” ( liming-alkali, subalkali, baltasoid, shoshonite series).

2. Magmatic associations of Precambrian Foundation of Platforms (plutonium-metamorphic, suphur-gneiss, hyperbasite-anortosite, hyperbasite-anorthosite, tonalite- greenstone associations; associations of granitoids of S-. I-. A- types).

3. Magmatic associations of folded zones and covers of platforms (continuous and contrast: gabro–granite and basalt –riolite geosyncline associations, trap associations).

4.Magmatic associations of zones of compression and stretching (associations of “Andes” types, diorite-granite associations of collision zone, sub-alkali and alkali associations of rift zones).

6. Associations of undetermined geo-dynamic locations (associations of layered massifs of main group, lamproite–kimberlite associations).

6.Magmatic formations of the Moon.

7. Problems of origin of various types of igneous rocks.

8.Colloquium



Introduction to Petrography of metamorphic rocks (2 hrs.). Definition of metamorphism and metamorphic rocks. History of development of metamorphism. Sedimentary and igneous rocks as an outcome material from formation of metamorphic rocks (ortho– and para-rocks).

Place of metamorphic rocks in the Earth’s crust structure.



Topics

Main points



V



General peculiarities of metamorphic rocks

^ Peculiar features of contents and structure of metamorphic rocks. Peculiarities of mineral contents of metamorphic rocks as compared to igneous (typical minerals- andalusite, disten, sillimanite, staurolite, glaucophane). Definition of allo- and iso-chemical metamorphism. Structures and textures of metamorphic rocks, porphyroblastic minerals.



VI





Factors, types, facies of metamorphism.

1.Factors of metamorphism (role of comprehensive and unilateral pressure, temperature, solutions). Gibbs’ rule of phases. Definition of metamorphic facies (works of Escole, Goldschmidt).

2.Types of metamorphism (dynamo-metamorphism, thermal metamorphism, regional metamorphism).

3.Dynamo-metamorphism (cataclasites, mylonites, tectonic breccia).

4.Thermal metamorphism (facies of contact metamorphism).

5.Regional metamorphism. Facies of regional metamorphism of moderate pressure – facies of green schists, epidote–amphibolite, granulite. Facies of regional metamorphism of high pressure– glaucophane schists, disten–muscovite schists, disten- gneiss and amphibolites, eclogites ).

6.Poly-metamorphism, diaphtoresis, ultrametamorphism (notion of migmatites, morphological types of migmatites, notion of ultrametamorphic granitoids, morphological types of bodies, made of ultrametamorphic granitoids, place of ultra metamorphic granitoids in the Earth’s crust, hypothesis of origination of ultra metamorphic granitoids).

7.Mineral facies of upper mantle– plagioclase, spinele, garnet, diamond–pirope

8.Colloquium.



VII





^

Metasomatic processes


1.Definition of metasomatosis – moving and inertial components, processes of diffusion and infiltration of solutions, factors of metasomatosis, (presence of system of pore micro cavities and solutions filling them, role of temperature, acidity – basis of solutions, aggressiveness of solutions). Rows of motion of components, rule of phases of Korzhinsky, metasomatic zones.

2.Metasomatic processes within magmatic bodies and their around contact zones – autometasomatics in acid and alkali rocks, contact-reactionary metasomatosis, precontact alkilization; formation of myrmekites and replacement antiperthites, scarns, pollution connected with them.

3.Regional postmagmatic metasomatosis– propilitization, greenstone transformations.

4.Low temperature round slit metasomatic processes.

5.Colloquium

VIIІ


Methods of decomposition of magmatic and metamorphic formations

1. Methods of mapping magmatic bodies and metamorphic clusters.

2.Magmatic and metamorphic complexes

3. Formational analysis of magmatic and metamorphic complexes





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