Barbara Herrnstein Smith, "Narrative Versions, Narrative Theories," in W. J. T. Mitchell (ed.) On Narrative, pp. 209-32.
Gerald Prince, A Dictionary of Narratology (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987), p. 58. Prince goes on to give a much fuller account of narrative.
Seymour Chatman, Coming to Terms: The Rhetoric of Narrative in Fiction and Film (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990), p. 9.
Jonathan Culler, The Pursuit of Signs: Semiotics, Literature, Deconstruction (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1981), pp. 169-87.
Leo Tolstoy, letter to N. N. Strakhov, 23 April 1 976, in Henry Gifford (ed.), Leo Tolstoy: A Critical Anthology (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971), p. 48.
Claude Bremond, "Le message narratif," Communications 4 (1964), 4; cited and translated by Seymour Chatman, Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1978), p. 20.
Barthes, "Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives," pp. 295-6; Chatman, Story and Discourse, pp. 53—6.
Barthes, "Structural Analysis," p. 267.
Henry James, The Turn of the Screw (Toronto: Dover, 1991), p. 2.
Manfred Jahn, "Frames, Preferences, and the reading of Third-Person Narratives: Towards a Cognitive Narratology," Poetics Today 18:4 (winter 1997), 441.
Oscar Wilde, Richard Ellmann (ed.), The Picture of Dorian Gray and Other Writings (New York: Bantam, 1982), p. 111.
Martin Amis, Time's Arrow (New York: Random House, 1991), p. 11.
Nelson Goodman, "Twisted Tales: or, Story, Study, and Symphony," in W J. T. Mitchell, ed., On Narrative, pp. 99-115.
George P. Landow, Hypertext 2.0: the Convergence of Contemporary Critical Theory and Technology (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997; revised), p. 215.
Espen J. Aarseth, Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), pp. 94 and 114.
Richard Wright, Black Boy (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), p. 47.
N. Scott Momaday, The Way to Rainy Mountain (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1969), p. 16.
E. M. Forster, Aspects of the Novel (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1955), p. 86. Originally published in 1927 Culler, The Pursuit of Signs, p. 183.
Hayden White, The Content of the Form, p. 6.
Robert Musil, trans. Sophie Wilkins, The Man without Qualities (New York: Knopf, 1995), p. 709.
Stephen Jay Gould, "Jim Bowie's Letter and Bill Buckner's Legs," Natural History 109:4 (May 2000): 26-40.
Santa Barbara News-Press (NY Times Service) 29 March 1986.
Franz Kafka, trans. Willa and Edwin Muir, "The Metamorphosis" in The Penal Colony: Stories and Short Pieces (New York: Schocken, 1961), p. 67.
Enrique Anderson Imbert, "Taboo" in Philip Stevick (ed.), Anti-Story: an Anthology of Experimental Fiction (New York: Free Press, 1971), p. 314.
Jeffrey Whitmore, "Bedtime Story" in Steve Moss (ed.), The World's Shortest Stories (San Luis Obispo & Santa Barbara: New Times Press & John Daniel, 1995), p. 15.
S. S. Koteliansky (trans, and ed.), Anton Tchekhov: Literary and Theatrical Reminiscences, (New York: Doran, 1927), p. 23.
Franz Kafka, trans. Willa Muir & Edwin Muir, The Great Wall of China: Stories and Reflections (New York: Schocken, 1970), pp. 129-30.
I. A. Richards, Principles of Literary Criticism (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1924), p. 1.
Henry Fielding, Tom Jones (New York: A. L. Burt, nd), vol. II, p. 233.
Gustave Flaubert, trans. Francis Steegmuller, Madame Bovary (New York: Modern Library, 1957), p. 153.
Ernest Hemingway, "The Doctor and the Doctor's Wife" in The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway (New York: Scribners, 1966), p. 99.
Gerard Genette, trans. Jane E. Lewin, Narrative Discourse: an Essay in Method (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980), pp. 243-5.
Richard Schickel, Movies: the History of an Art and an Institution (New York: Basic Books, 1964), p. 149.
Dorrit Cohn, "Discordant Narration," Style 34:2 (Summer 2000), 307-16.
Flaubert, Madame Bovary, p. 322.
James Joyce, Ulysses (New York: Random House, 1986), p. 609.
David Bordwell, Narration in the Fiction Film (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), p. 62
Albert Laffay, Logique du cinema: creation et spectacle (Paris: Masson, 1964), p. 81.
David Hayman, Ulysses: the Mechanics of Meaning (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982), p. 84. See also pages 88-104 and 122-32.
Umberto Eco, et al, Interpretation and Overinterpretation (University of Cambridge Press, 1992), pp. 25ff.
Gabriel Garcia Marquez, trans. Gregory Rabassa, "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings" in Leaf Storm and Other Stories (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), p. 106.
Robert Musil, The Man Without Qualities, pp. 708-9.
Emma Kafalenos, "Not (Yet) Knowing: Epistemological Effects of Deferred and Suppressed Information in Narrative" in David Herman (ed.), Narratolo-gies: Perspectives on Narrative Analysis (Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999), pp. 56—60. The concept of the primacy effect comes from cognitive psychology and was first brought into the analysis of narrative by Menakhem Perry, "Literary Dynamics: How the Order of a Text Creates Its Meaning," Poetics Today 1 (1979), 35-64 [53ff], and Meir Sternberg, ExpositionalModes and Temporal Ordering in Fiction, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978, pp. 93ff.
F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Crack-Up" in Edmund Wilson (ed.), The Crack-Up (New York: New Directions, 1962), p. 69.
Ernest Hemingway, "Now I Lay Me" in The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway (New York: Scribners, 1963), p. 363.
Wolfgang Iser, The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974), p. 280.
Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights (Baltimore: Penguin, 1965), p. 78.
Saint Augustine, trans. D. W. Robertson, Jr., On Christian Doctrine (New York: Liberal Arts Press, 1958), p. 102.
Paul Auster, The Invention of Solitude (New York: Penguin, 1988), p. 146.
The Floating Admiral (1931) was an authorial round robin involving thirteen separate authors, including Agatha Christie and Dorothy Sayers. Naked Came the Stranger (1969), by the pseudonymous Penelope Ashe, was organized by Mike McGrady, who rounded up twenty-five of his co-workers on the Long Island Newsday to write installments of an erotic novel. The book was a best seller even before the authorial fraud was made public, going through seven printings (90,000 copies) in four months.
[4- Henry James, "Preface to the 1908 Edition," in Peter G. Beidler (ed.), The Turn of the Screw, (Boston: St. Martin's, 1995), p. 119.
5. Bloom developed this argument in a series of books beginning with his The Anxiety of Influence (Oxford University Press, 1973). See especially A Map of Misreading (Oxford University Press, 1975).
George Bluestone, Novels into Film (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957), p. 62.
Ingmar Bergman, trans. Lars Malmstrom and David Kushner, "Introduction: Bergman Discusses Film-Making" in Four Screenplays of Ingmar Bergman (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), p. xvii.
Quoted by Frank Rich in "American Pseudo," New York Times Magazine (December 12, 1999), p. 1.
Sergei Eisenstein, trans. Jay Layda, "Dickens, Griffith, and the Film Today" in Film Form: Essays in Film Theory (Cleveland: World Publishing, 1957), pp. 195-255.
Dudley Andrew, Concepts in Film Theory (Oxford University Press, 1984), pp. 98-104.
Emily Bronte, Withering Heights, p. 47.
Leo Braudy. The World in a Frame: What We See in Films (University of Chicago Press, 1985), p. 196.
Henry James, The Turn of the Screw (New York: Dover, 1991), p. 14.
William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Antony and Cleopatra, act II, scene ii, lines 196-202.
William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, act II, scene ii, lines 2-6.
Henry James, S. P. Rosenbaum (ed.), The Ambassadors (New York: Norton, 1964), p. 238.
Bronte, Wuthering Heights, p. 287.
Aristotle, trans. Ingram Bywater, "Poetics" in Richard McKeon (ed.) Introduction to Aristotle (New York: Random House, 1947), p. 632 (1450a).
Leslie Stephen, "Biography" in Men, Books, and Mountains (1893; London: The Hogarth Press, 1956), p. 142.
Henry James, "The Art of Fiction," in Leon Edel (ed.) The Future of the Novel (New York: Vintage, 1956), pp. 15-16.
E. M. Forster, Aspects of the Novel (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1927), pp. 67-
Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man (New York: Signet, 1953), p. 231.
Samuel Beckett, "Ping" in S. E. Gontarski (ed.), Samuel Beckett: The Complete Short Prose, 1929-1989 (New York: Grove, 1995), p. 193.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Confessions of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, n. t. (Philadelphia: Gebbie and Company, 1904), pp. 1-2.
Laurence Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman (London & Toronto: Dent, 1912), pp. 207-8.
W. N. P. Barbellion [Bruce Commings],_/iwMa/ of a Disappointed Man (London: Chatto & Windus, 1919), p. 106.
Edmund Pearson (ed.), The Trial of Lizzie Borden (London: Heinemann, 1937), p. 232.
Peter Brooks, "The Law as Narrative and Rhetoric," in Peter Brooks and Paul Gewirtz (eds.), Law's Stories, p. 16.
Martha Minow, "Stories in Law," in Brooks and Gewirtz (ed.), Law's Stories, p. 35.
Jerome Bruner, Actual Minds, Possible Worlds (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986), p. 11.
Ronald Sukenick, Narralogues: Truth in Fiction (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000), p. 2.
Sigmund Freud, trans. A. A. Brill, The Interpretation of Dreams, in A. A. Brill (ed.), The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud (New York: Random House, 1965), p. 309.
Vladimir Propp, "Oedipus in the Light of Folklore," in Lowell Edmunds and Alan Dundes (eds.), Oedipus: A Folklore Casebook (New York: Garland, 1983), p. 81.
Claude Levi-Strauss, trans. Claire Jacobsen and Brooke Grundfest Schoepf, "The Structural Study of Myth," in Structural Anthropology (New York: Basic Books, 1963), p. 211.
Daniel Defoe, The History and Remarkable Life of the Truly Honourable Colonel Jacque (London: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 2.
Anthony Trollope, An Autobiography (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1947), p. 124.
Francois Mauriac [no trans.], God and Mammon (London: Sheed and Ward, 1936), p. 85.
D. H. Lawrence, "Morality in the Novel" in Edward D. McDonald (ed.), Phoenix: The Posthumous Papers ofD. H. Lawrence (London: Heinemann, 1936), p. 527.
Anton Chekhov, trans. S. S. Koteliansky and Philip Tomlinson, Letter to A. S. Souvorm (27 October 1888) in S. S. Koteliansky and Philip Tomlinson (eds.), Life and Letters of Anton Tchekhov (London: Benjamin Blom, 1925; reissued, 1965), p. 127.
Stanley E. Fish, Self-Consuming Artifacts: the Experience of Seventeenth-Century Literature (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), p. 1.